Indonesian Positive Law-
In order to achieve the educational objectives as mentioned in Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, it has been regulated regarding the category of education with clear stages. These stages are in the form of pathways, levels and types of education which are regulated in the provisions of Article 13 – Article 32 of Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System.
In this description it is stated regarding:
The definition of education pathways according to the provisions of Article 1 number 7 of Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System is a vehicle passed by students to develop their potential in an educational process that is in accordance with educational goals. The educational pathway consists of:
- Formal education; is a structured and tiered educational pathway consisting of primary education, secondary education and higher education.
- Non-formal education; is an educational path outside the formal education path that can be implemented in a structured and tiered manner.
- Informal education; is a family and ward educational path.
The level of education according to the provisions of Article 1 number 8 of Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System is an educational stage that is determined based on the level of development of students, the goals to be achieved, and the abilities developed. The level of formal education consists of:
- Primary education; which is the level of education that is the basis for continuing to secondary level education can be in the form of: Elementary School (SD), Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) or other equivalent forms, Junior High School (SMP) and Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs), or other equivalent forms.
- Secondary education; is a continuation of primary education consisting of general secondary education and vocational secondary education. Secondary education is in the form of Senior High School (SMA), Madrasah Aliyah (MA), Vocational High School (SMK), Vocational Aliyah Madrasah (MAK), and other equivalent forms.
- Higher education; is a level of education after secondary education that includes diploma, bachelor, master, specialist, and doctoral education programs organized by universities.
Types of Education
Types of education according to the provisions of Article 1 number 9 of Law Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System are groups based on the specificity of the educational objectives of an educational unit. This type of education includes:
- General education; is primary and secondary education that prioritizes the expansion of knowledge needed by students to continue their education to a higher level.
- Vocational education; is a secondary education that prepares students especially to work in a certain field.
- Academic education; is a higher education undergraduate and post-graduate program directed primarily at the mastery of certain disciplines.
- Professional education; is a higher education after undergraduate program that prepares learners to have jobs with specific skill requirements.
- Vocational education; is higher education that prepares students to have jobs with certain applied skills maximum equivalent to undergraduate programs.
- Religious education; is primary, secondary and higher education that prepares students to be able to carry out roles that require mastery of knowledge about religious teachings and / or become experts in religious science.
- Special education; is the provision of education for different students or students who have extraordinary intelligence that is organized inclusively or in the form of special education units at the primary or secondary education level.
The implementation of the education path as mentioned above is through the form of educational units organized by the government, local governments, and/or the community in a face-to-face and/or remote manner. -RenTo131222-